Lahore (/ləˈhɔər/) (Punjabi: لہور, Urdu: لاہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab. It is the second most populous city in Pakistan and the 32nd most populous city in the world. The city is located in the north-eastern end of Pakistan's Punjab province, near the border with the Indian state of Punjab. Lahore is ranked as a beta- world city, and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2014.
Lahore is the historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and is the largest Punjabi city in the world. The city has a long history, and was once under the rule of the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and the Delhi Sultanate. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire, serving as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of Persian Safavid Emperor Nader Shah during his invasion of the Mughal Empire. The city was then contested between different powers before it became capital of the Sikh Empire, and then the capital of the Punjab under British rule. Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Lahore became the capital of Pakistan's Punjab province.
Lahore is one of Pakistan's most liberal and cosmopolitan cities. It exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major centre for Pakistan's publishing industry, and remains the foremost centre of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is also home to Pakistan's film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali music. The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the old Walled City, and the Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques. Lahore is also home to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens.